For the Base Plate and Tubular Base Plate joints, designed with Advance Design Steel Connections, to determine the bond resistance of anchors subjected to tension, an anchorage length needs to be computed.
The anchorage length calculation has changed: for the French localization (French design annex), the anchorage length will be computed according to both CNC2M and EC2 recommendations; the smallest length will be used to compute the bond resistance. for the localizations, Eurocode 2 recommendations will be used to determine the anchorage length.
The main steps which are implemented in the calculation, both for straight and hooked anchors are the following:
1. The basic required anchorage length, lb,rqd (EN 1992-1-1, 8.4.3)
The calculation of the basic required anchorage length is done according to the EN 1992-1-1, 8.4.3:
The values for the ultimate bond stress fbd are given in 8.4.2, as follows
For simplification, 𝜎𝑆𝑑 = fyd = fyk/Ɣs (acc. to paragraph 3.2.7; fyd = design tensile stress of anchor – conservative assumption). And:
2. The design anchorage length (EN 1992-1-1, 8.4.4)
Since we deal with tensioned anchorage, 8.4.4 (2) allows for the use of an equivalent anchorage length (𝑙𝑏,𝑒𝑞), as a simplified alternative to the design anchorage length lbd given in 8.4.4 (1):
𝑙𝑏,𝑒𝑞 = 𝛼1 𝑙𝑏,𝑟𝑞𝑑, for shapes shown in Figure 8.1b to 8.1d 𝛼1 is computed according to Table 8.2 and fig. 8.3 (for hooked anchors):
Paragraph 8.4.4 (1) also provides a minimum anchorage length, if no other limitation is applied:
3.1 Minimum anchorage length The real anchorage length* must fulfill the minimum anchorage length condition:
𝑙𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙 ≥ 𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛
If the condition is not fulfilled, the anchor bond strength will be neglected.
• Warning message: “Anchor bond strength is neglected! Minimum recommended anchorage length is not fulfilled – 8.4.4(1) (8.6), EN 1992-1-1.” In this case, l real for hooked anchors is considered to be l = l1+r+l2 (see figure below
3.2 Equivalent anchorage length The real anchorage length* must be bigger than the equivalent anchorage length (see Figure 8.1, EN1992-1-1):
𝑙𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙 ≥ 𝑙𝑏,𝑒𝑞
Currently, users cannot define a custom anchor, so if this condition is not fulfilled, the bond resistance will be computed with the real anchorage length and a warning message about the inadequacy between anchorage lengths will appear in the report.
• Warning message: “Increase anchorage length! There is not enough length remained to match the equivalent anchorage length (8.4.4(2) & Fig. 8.1, EN 1992-1-1)”.
In this case, l real for hooked anchors is considered to be l = l1+r (see figure below)
3.3 Hooked anchors – Minimum hook extension According to fig. 8.1., the hook extension must be bigger than 5 bar diameter:
If the condition is not met, a warning message will appear inside the report.
• Warning message: “The length past the end of the bend is smaller than 5 diameters of the anchor (Figure 8.1, EN 1992-1-1)! The Minimum recommended length is: (..).
The Pushover is a static nonlinear analysis in which the structure is pushed gradually following a predefined load pattern distribution. Material nonlinearities in structural elements are usually modeled by concentrated plastic hinges and the option for including geometrical nonlinearities is available.
A control node, generally located at the top level of the structure, is considered to monitor the lateral displacement while the load is increased. The base shear is plotted Versus the control node lateral displacement and the resulting graph is called the Pushover curve.
The pushover curve represents the structural capacity to resist lateral loads and for this reason it is also called the capacity curve. On the other hand, the adequate seismic response spectrum represents the seismic demand and is also referred to as the demand curve.
The purpose of the pushover analysis is to determine the maximum structural nonlinear response to seismic loads. This extremum is provided in the form of maximum control node displacement. Then, based on its value, the location and plastic limit state of hinges are determined and the inter story drift is checked.
The sought maximum response is found at a point that balances between the structural capacity and the seismic demand. This point is called Performance Point and in Advance Design it can be calculated according to the Eurocode 8 N2 method or the ATC-40 Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM).
During the last few years, the Advance Design reinforced concrete modules have been progressively getting more and more configurable for automatically generated reinforcement. New customer-specific settings are added in each version, making the modules for RC beams, RC columns, RC foundations as well as RC walls and RC slabs more and more configurable. This allows you to set the parameters in such a way that the reinforcement for the elements is generated according to your expectations. And of course the expectations on the reinforcement of an element can be different, depending on the user and sometimes on current needs. Sometimes in one project the focus is on the optimum use of the reinforcement and in another on the ease and speed of construction.
Today, let’s look at a few selected reinforcement settings for reinforced concrete beams.
Common longitudinal reinforcement for the spans
Imagine that we have a reinforced concrete beam with several spans. We have modeled and calculated it as a continuous beam, and we want to generate the longitudinal reinforcement for each span separately. This is the default setting of the module.
But if we want to get the effect of continuous longitudinal reinforcement on all spans we can get it very simply. In the window Reinforcement Assumption on the Longitudinal Bars tab we have dedicated options ‘Bars on Multiple Spans’.
The option Top/Bottom bars extend across the entire beam can be enabled independently for longitudinal bottom and top reinforcement. Additionally, you can select whether you want to extend bars from the first layer only or also bars from all layers (if any).
Let’s take a look at the examples in the pictures below (only the main bars of the bottom reinforcement are shown for easier understanding).
Linking of longitudinal members with transverse reinforcement
One of the settings for transverse reinforcement is the default shape type of these bars. In the Reinforcement Assumptions window on the Transversal Bars tab, we have a number of useful options for setting shapes. One of them is the possibility of deactivating the automatic selection of shape types and the possibility to choose from the list the type of transversal reinforcement – and actually the way of joining the longitudinal bars not located in the cross-section corners. We have 4 types available, as on the pictures below: A – None, B – Stirrups, C – Pins and D – Multiple links.
Note that multiple links for this case can have two solutions: with one large and one small stirrup or two identical ones. When we can have more longitudinal bars in a layer (than 4, as is the case on the above picture), the number of possible configurations for multiple links is larger. This can also be set according to our needs in the Multiple Links tab where we can graphically choose default settings for different number of longitudinal bars.
Maximum number of longitudinal bars
One of the reinforcement settings is the number of members of the longitudinal reinforcement to be generated due to the width of the beam cross-section.
These settings are available in the Reinforcement Assumption window on the Numbers of bars tab. We can set there the number of longitudinal bars in the span and in the support for different width ranges of the cross-section.
So for example if the cross-section is 300 mm wide, 4 longitudinal bars (in the span and in the support) are taken automatically. Depending on the required calculated theoretical reinforcement, the program will then select the diameters of these bars and if necessary, add additional layers of bars. But among the options available in this configuration window we can also find a special option that changes the way of determining the number of longitudinal bars. It is called Consider number of bars and layers as maximum limits. When this option is not active, the entered number of bars is considered as imposed. When this option is active, then the number of bars is considered as maximum allowed value and the number of bars will be automatically determined based on required reinforcement area.
As the selection of this method for a given required reinforcement area can lead to a variety of possible solutions, e.g. fewer members with larger diameter or more members with smaller diameter, two options are additionally available for choosing the preferred solution:
Smallest reinforcement area – will assure the smallest difference between the real and the theoretical reinforcement area.
Minimum number of bars – will assure the minimum number of longitudinal bars and will eventually lead to bigger diameters.
Typically, both options produce fewer bars than the fixed number of columns method, especially when the second option is chosen, but the end result also depends heavily on other assumptions. We can see a simple example for a cross section having 300 mm with three different settings used: A – the number of columns of bars is fixed (which gives 4 columns of bars for this width), B – the number of columns of bars is a maximum limit, and the first option “Smallest reinforcement area” is selected, C – as previously but the second option “Minimum number of bars” is selected.
All these settings give different configurations for the number and diameters of longitudinal members, but they all satisfy the section verification requirements and give a larger area of real reinforcement than the required area of theoretical reinforcement.
The above settings are only a fragment of the possible settings. It’s worth to get to know all the settings, because thanks to the multitude of configuration options and the possibility to save them to templates, using design modules of Advance Design we can dramatically accelerate the daily work.
Article by Mateusz Budzinski / Technical Product Manager / GRAITEC
With version 2022 of Advance Design, a module for the generation of the real reinforcement for concrete slabs has been introduced. One of the main tasks of this module is to prepare the reinforcement cage on the basis of the previously calculated theoretical reinforcement and then to prepare a drawing with the description of this reinforcement.
In practice, the theoretical reinforcement is calculated on the basis of the results of the FEM (finite element) model. However, the FEM calculation model itself, by its nature, is usually a simplification of the real geometry of the structure.
But for the real reinforcement and the drawing documentation we have to take into account the real geometry of slabs and supporting elements like beams, columns and walls. Of course, the extent to which the calculated and real models diverge depends on how the FEM model was created. So, how can we ensure that the real reinforcement and the drawings correct in case of model differences? Let’s take a closer look at the possibilities the new module for reinforced concrete slabs in Advance Design offers in this respect.
Consider the first case – the position of the axes of the supporting elements (beams, columns and walls) in the FEM model is consistent with their real position, while the outline of the slab is simplified – the edges of the slab are modelled along the outline of the support axis. This is a common case, especially when the model has been created based on construction axes.
After importing the slab model into the RC design slab module we’ll see the outlines of the supporting elements and the edges of the analytical slab model (green lines in the images below). While the analytical model cannot be modified at this point, we can automatically modify the external geometric contour of the slab. In this case, we can automatically adjust the geometric contour of the slab using the option available in the geometry parameters window called ‘Slab physical contour’.
With this option we can decide whether: ->leave the geometric contour unchanged, as identical to the analytical contour;
-> extend the geometric contour to the outer contours of beams and walls;
-> extend the geometric contour to the outer contours of the columns;
-> extend the geometric contour to the outer contours of any supports (beams, walls and columns). For this corner example, the effect of this last option is the same as for the previous one.
Note that the change concerns the geometric contour of the plate, while the analytical contour remains unchanged. Therefore the values of the determined theoretical reinforcement do not change and the generated real reinforcement in the stretched area of the slab is assumed to be the same as on the edge of the analytical contour.
Let us now consider a different case – the position of the support elements in the FEM model is different from the real one. To illustrate this we will use the same corner from the model shown above. Let us therefore assume that in reality the column is aligned with the correctly modelled beams.
In this case we can use a graphical method to edit the geometric model. To do this, we select the appropriate icon and choose graphically the element that we want to modify.
The new position of the axis is then indicated graphically or the value of the displacement vector is entered from the keyboard.
In a similar way, we can move beams and walls. In addition, it is also possible to graphically modify the position of individual edges of the geometric model of the slab.
Of course, when the geometrical contour of the slab is changed, this affects the arrangement of the reinforcement bars, including their number and length. On the other hand, when the position of the supports is modified, in most cases only the reinforcement drawing is influenced.
Thanks to these easy-to-use methods of geometry modification, the final effect, i.e. automatically generated drawing, corresponds with the real geometry of the slab.
All connections available in the Steel Connection module can be designed using all combinations or envelopes created from those combinations.
The possibility to choose how to use the combinations in the design process is available in the Design Assumptions dialog.
By selectingEnvelopes method, the calculation will be performed using only the combinations that provide Max/Min of the design forces using certain filtering criteria done in Advance Design Steel connection.
The envelopes that are considered now in calculation can be seen inside the new Combinations report or inside detailed or intermediate reports in the Load combinations chapter.
The Combinations report added to the available report list for each joint type will display only theLoad combinations description chapter, which will provide an easier and faster way to access the envelope list.
As have been mentioned, there are two options possible: All and Envelopes.
Now let’s see how the selection affects the behavior during calculation process.
Combinations = All
For Combinations set on “All”, the Advance Design Steel Connection is using all the combinations generated to design the connection.
For the Base Plate connection for a tubular column as on the picture below, the number of combinations is 181, and all are used for design calculations. It influences the report (as a table listing all the combinations is long), but the most important is that due to the number of combinations, the calculation time is relatively long.
Combinations = Envelopes
For Combinations set as “Envelopes” the module will calculate the connection using just some of the combinations which are fulfilling certain criteria.
The criteria used to select just a part of the combinations are the following:
Based on these criteria, Advance Design Steel Connection module is selecting the combinations that compliant with one or more criteria and does the design calculations based on the selected combinations.
The calculation time decreases, and the report is much more compact as only the selected combinations will be listed.
For the Base Plate connection for a tubular column as on the picture below (having more load cases that the previous example), the number of combinations is 482. But this time calculations are done with “Envelopes” of combinations.
Even there are 482 combinations, thanks to the envelopes, the calculation time is less than for the previous example. And in addition, the report does not have pages full of combination tables and it is generated much faster. The Load combinations description table on the report contains now only several combinations that are fulfilling one or more criteria. And the connection is verified using these combinations
When creating a design model for a structure, one of the steps is to prepare combinations for defined load cases. Most often we use the mechanism of automatic generation of combinations, according to the rules of the standard set in the project configuration. If necessary, we can modify the rules and relations between cases or case families using the available mechanisms in the Concomitance between load cases dialog window (available for Eurocode combinations).
However, while working on many projects there are situations when we want to define a set of our own combinations. Of course, in the case of a small number of load cases and a small number of required combinations, this can be done directly in the combination dialog. Nevertheless, in this article we will take a look at more effective methods, which will work especially well in case of a larger number of cases/combinations and when we want to use our own combination definition in other projects. These will be two solutions: using the mechanism to export and import combination definitions using an Excel spreadsheet and the mechanism to import combination definitions as a CBN text file.
Using an Excel spreadsheet
Starting with version 2020.1 Advance Design allows for easy and quick exchange of combination definitions between the current project and an Excel spreadsheet. For this purpose, there are two dedicated buttons available in the Combinations window.
The Export button exports definitions of all existing in the project load combinations to a new Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. For this a dedicated xlsx file is created on the path selected by the user. The Import button reads definitions of load combinations from the selected spreadsheet and adds them to existing definitions on the current project.
Let’s look at the data structure in the spreadsheet. The first row contains the column names, while the following rows contain the definitions of the subsequent combinations.
This column contains the identification numbers of the successive load combinations.
CODE and TYPE columns
These columns contain the combination type text code (CODE) as well as the name of the combination type (TYPE). The names and type codes depend on the settings of the project location – working language and standard for the load combinations. Below is an example of codes and types for the Eurocode settings:
It is important that when editing or creating a worksheet, the combination types in the TYPE column are consistent with the types available for the current standard. Therefore, in the TYPE column, the cell values are selected from the list.
CAS and COEFF columns
These columns are always defined in pairs and specify the load case ID number (CAS) and the corresponding coefficient (COEFF). The number of pairs of these columns’ headers should be equal to the maximum number of load cases in the most extended combination. Of course we can reduce or increase the number of pairs of headers if necessary. The number of pairs of values in a given row with the definition of the combination depends only on the given combination, but at least one value pair should be defined.
When you import load combination definitions from a selected spreadsheet, these combinations are added to the list of existing combinations in the current project. If combinations with the same ID number already exist in the project, then the ID number of the imported combinations is changed to the first free number. If the combination definition in the Excel file is incorrect (e.g. contains case numbers that do not exist in the model), then the combination is omitted during import. In these cases a warning appears.
Using the possibilities of a spreadsheet, including the possibility of using complex formulas, macros or cooperation with other programs, we have almost unlimited possibilities to prepare and automate the creation of our own load combinations.
Using CBN files
CBN files are text documents containing combination definitions. Generation of the predefined load combination with using the CBN file is based on loading the file from the disk using the Loads CBN button, located in the Combinations window. We can also preview the contents of the file without the generation of combination by using the View button.
To define your own file with the definition of a combination, you need to create a text file similar in structure to the predefined .cbn files. Lines starting with # or // are used to enter comments / notes and are optional. The remaining lines are treated as definitions of subsequent combinations and consist of case codes and coefficients separated by spaces. Additionally, at the end of each line there is space for the combination code and for the comment. Let’s look through the contents of the sample file:
In this example there are 3 lines of combinations, so 3 combinations will be generated. CASE1, CASE2, CASE3 are the type codes for 3 different load cases. Next to each code there are coefficients given with a character. Codes such as ECELUSTR are codes for the generated combinations. They can be arbitrary texts, in which case they will be used as an additional description, or they can be created in the naming convention for a given standard, so that they are automatically recognized as suitable combinations for design calculations. The text at the end of each line of a combination is optional and is not used during combination generation. It can be our additional description visible only during file preview. Note that in the last combination, in the second and third case coefficients equal to zero appear, which means that this combination will only contain the first load case. Exactly the same effect you get if there are no codes and coefficients for these two last load cases in this line. In the picture below you can see the effect of combination generation for the above example.
When loading the file, combinations are generated according to custom definitions, and the combination code is assigned to combinations accordingly. The combination name is generated based on the combination definition.
Note that when using an Excel file, to identify load cases their ID number is used. This allows you to precisely determine the relationship, regardless of the type of load case. However, in this solution we need to know the ID numbers of these cases before the combination is generated.
In case of CBN files, load case codes are used. Thanks to the codes it is easier to prepare a universal combination definition, which can then be used for many projects, but at the same time we have to be careful about the compatibility of the codes in the CBN file and in the project.
In every new project the load case codes are the same for all load cases. They can then either be modified manually by us or updated automatically by the program during combination generation (the program asks for this during combination generation).
Manual modification of the codes is useful when we have prepared the combination definitions in the CBN file using our own codes. In such a case, we can mark each case explicitly in a given project, making sure that they match the codes in the CBN file.
If you allow the program to automatically complete the codes during combination definition, remember that the same codes are assigned to all cases of a given type. This means that all fixed load cases will have the same code, similarly all snow load cases etc. This solution is convenient when there is no need to combine cases inside the same type.
Let’s see the effect of one exemplary row defining the combination in the CBM file:
CASE1 +1.10 CASE2 +1.20 CASE3 +1.30 CombA
Example 1. There are 3 different load cases with names and codes respectively: A – CASE1, B – CASE2 and C – CASE3. The result will be one combination with all cases:
A*1.1 + B*1.2 + C*1.3
Example 2. There are 2 different load cases with names and codes respectively: A – CASE1 and B – CASE2. The result will be one combination:
A*1.1 + B*1.2
Example 3. There are 3 different load cases with names and codes in the project: A – CASE1, B – CASE1 and C – CASE3. Note that the first two cases have the same code. The result will be two combinations:
A*1.1 + C*1.3
B*1.1 + C*1.3
As you can see both mechanisms, either using an Excel spreadsheet or using CNB text files, allow you to easily and quickly create your own sets of load case combinations in Advance Design. I encourage you to get closer to these solutions and use them while working with your own projects.
All modern design applications require a solid testing mechanism in order to detect any regression regarding the quality of the results but also to cover all areas of the application (GUI, CAD, correct workflows, …).
Advance Design has a mechanism based on a script that works like a batch session. This mechanism was mainly designed as a system for automatic tests to offer access to almost all areas in the application. In this way we can reproduce various scenarios.
Since it’s quite extensive and very cryptic, the main idea to use this mechanism is to start from a base script and adjusted or completed with the other commands. A base script can be generated by Advance Design. Usually an automatic test in our QA system consist in a model and a script. Both are passed to Advance Design in command line and the application executes the script.
In the following points we will go into details for such scenarios.
The base model creation
The first step consists in creating a model using your preferred localization and norms. The creation of load cases and their configuration is also recommended.
The analysis hypothesis, options for concrete analysis, steel analysis, etc. can also be configured at this step. Then, after saving the model, a back-up is recommended because it will be needed at a later step.
Until now we could say we have a complete environment. From this point we can start generating the structure elements (linear elements, planar elements, footings….).
2. The elements creation through scripting
2.1. Commands syntax and script composition
The syntax of a command that creates an element with geometry is composed by:
the_name_of_the_command+space+(x_coordinate;y_coordinate;z_coordinate)[and repeat the ’+ space+(x_coordinate;y_coordinate;z_coordinate)’ for all the points in geometry]
’.’ is the coordinate decimal separator, and ‘enter’ is the separator between different commands, so each command is on a different line in a script.
A script contains multiples commands and the last command has to be ’end_auto_script‘.
You can generate a list of commands as bellow in Excel with macros, Dynamo or with another familiar program or tool.
This script will generate the elements in the model like in the picture bellow:
In order to create elements using commands as the ones above, when running one of them or the script the following snap modes have to be disabled: extension, tracking, ortho, relative and length on element.
All the commands executed by the user are recorded in the history of the console which is accessible in the input console line (E.G.: selecting an element, calling a ribbon or menu command like creating an element, etc. …).
For checking any executed command syntax, scrolling through the commands history is possible by clicking the input console and pressing left arrow key for each command (using right arrow will walk you back to the last executed command, opposite to the left arrow key, but only after starting to use left arrow). To copy it the recommended way is by selecting the text with the mouse, right clicking it and selecting copy from the contextual menu.
2.2. Script saving, recording and playing
If the script is generated with Excel/Dynamo/etc. then make sure the generated file has the extension set as .ads.
For manual script creation a text file with ads extension is needed. It can be created with Notepad or any other text file editor. After the creation of file copy the script described above at point 2.A. in the empty file and save it as your_script_file_name.ads .
For script recording in AD, right clicking in the input line of the console and choosing ‘start recording’ from the contextual menu starts the recording. After the user interaction with the program (E.G.: selecting an element, calling a ribbon or menu command like creating an element, modifying options in a dialog, etc…), right clicking in the input line of the console and choosing ‘stop recording’ a dialog is launched for choosing the name and the location of the script. There are some limitations that are listed at the end of the document.
To play the script for scenario 2.1, right click in the input line of the console and choosing ‘Load script’ from the contextual menu starts a dialog to choose the script file. After choosing it AD start playing the commands from the script one by one with a delay between them. The user should not move the mouse or press any key while playback is in progress. At the end a message will be printed in the console that notifies the end of the operation.
3. Model calculation and reports generation
At this step start recording a new script as described above. The automatic wind, snow, traffic loads, etc… and combination must be generated if needed. Then the analysis model should be created, maybe also the concrete analysis, steel analysis, etc…. Then in the report generation dialog add the needed reports and optionally change the report type: (Doc, docx, xls, xlsx(for the these first 4 extensions Office suite is required), rtf, txt). In the gif sample, the selected type is xls but in the script rtf type is selected in case Office is not installed. The report is generated in the document folder of the model and it is not automatically opened.
In the end you need to stop the recording. The resulting script can be used as a template script and should be modified/adapted to include the creating elements commands (from the point 2.1.). They should be added right after the last set_unit command:
4. Running the script in batch mode.
At this step you should use a copy of the backup model from the 1st point. Running a batch mode can be achieved by running a bat in which the command is having the following syntax:
“X:\Path to AD\Bin\AdvanceDesign.exe” /s “Y:\path to script\script name.ads” /m “Z:\path to model\model name.fto”
“C:\Program Files\Graitec\Advance Design\2021\Bin\AdvanceDesign.exe” /s “d:\AutoTests\models for new tests\newtest\combined script.ads” /m “d:\AutoTests\models for new tests\newtest\FTDoc15.fto”
A bat file can be created in Notepad and saved as ‘file_name.bat’ when selecting all types as the extension in the save as dialog.
5. Scripting recording and playback limitations
Double-click in pilot; instead, used right click or other commands
Combos in toolbars.
The Data Grid dialog (different technology, in work).
Buttons that open dialogs in Property list and the recording of the GUI operations in that dialogs.
Changing properties in property list commands might have to be updated at each version/subversion of AD because the commands are depending on the identifiers of the properties which are changed almost each version.
Changing the sections and materials for elements from property list.
Changing height for level in Property list
Double-click on result curves in order to save them as *.jpg
Only basic modifications in tables are supported
The measurement units must be the same as the ones installed by the kit
When creating a circle, the radius will be specified in console, not by clicking on the screen.
Modifications of snapping are to be done using the toolbar/ribbon.
Creating loads on selection.
All needed section cuts will be created before starting to register the script.
Mesh preview for planar elements.
Selecting the work plane.
When creating the analysis model, the script should compute a new analysis. When automatically running, if an analysis was computed for the current model, the check boxes for analysis types are disabled, therefore the test will try to open an existent analysis (which does not exist since we should run on a clean model). Therefore, when registering the script, even if the model is a new one and the option to create a new analysis is already selected, select “Create new analysis” and then the analysis type(s).
Do not use right click in reports window. Use instead left click and the existing buttons.
In order to change the cases/combinations for the report, do not use the Cases/Combinations window. Instead, use the Report properties window (select report and click Properties button) select advanced options to expand the dialog and check the specific case/combination and use the analysis type combo from the below of the extended window:
When adding more family cases or loads, do not use the keyboard to insert the number. Use instead the arrow buttons.
The two slides for size from the display options window (Alt+x): or from the ribbon
The window for pressure generation.
6. The power of automation
This tool is very efficient for our QA system but can be very useful also for anyone who wants to automatize repetitive scenarios but also to feed Advance Design with entire building structures extracted from another application. Just do the scenario inside the application, save the script, adapt it if you need it and run it.
If you are Advance Design User – Gain priceless knowledge about ADVANCE Design and be the first to know about the new features during Advance Design User Summit 2020!
Dear Advance Design users,we would like to thank you for being a Graitec customer and creating great, innovative and complex projects using our software. Maintaining a positive relationship with you is crucial for us, as is developing the new functionalities of our software according to your needs and indications. In order to thank you for your loyalty, we would like to invite you to our Advance Design User Summit 2020 – an event where you will have the opportunity to gain advanced technical knowledge provided by our professionals, as well as to learn about the upcoming novelties in Advance Design software. We invite you to read the agenda and register your place!
Modeling and defining the values of all climatic loads is a time-consuming process and a source of possible errors. The amount of time spent for the calculation of climatic effects can be significantly reduced, while assuring more accurate results. You can obtain in no time the climatic loads intensity and distribution on your structure using a fast and easy-to-use Advance Design function: the 3D Climatic loads generator.
Implemented Eurocode 1 and National specific standards
Advance Design provides several climatic standards such as NV 2009 (France), NP082-04 / CR1-1-3-2005 (Romania), Eurocode 1, Canadian (NBC2010 or 2015) and US (ASCE 7-10) codes, with different national appendixes:
The choice is done in the global project’s settings.
The structure and roof shape is taken into account, therefore you can create loads on portal frames, parapet walls, lattice structures, scaffolding elements, buildings with dominant face, panels, horizontal roofs, two slopes roofs, isolated roofs, protruding roofs, roofs with awning, etc.
Examples of automatic generation of climatic loads on various structures
Wind loads on multiple roofs
Snow loads on multiple roofs
Wind loads on awning
Snow accumulation on portal frames with a negative slope
Snow accumulation on portal frames with a negative slope
You can automatically generate all the climatic loads on a structure in an efficient way, which saves a great amount of time:
Select the appropriate climatic standard.
Generate windwalls on 3D structures.
Create load case families for snow or / and wind and configure the advanced properties (if necessary).
Access the snow and wind loads values map to define the structure location. With a single click, the values of the wind speed, wind pressure, snow load and exceptional snow loads on the structure faces and roof are automatically defined according to the selected region:
Launch the climatic generator
The climatic load cases and loads are automatically displayed in the graphic area and also, in the Pilot, in the corresponding loads family, providing access to an efficient management:
Accurate and prompt update
If the structure or the loads properties are modified after generating the climatic loads, a single click is enough to update the loads, according to the new conditions.
If you’re a structural engineer looking for powerful steel connection design software, then make sure you tune into our free Advance Design Connection week.
Boost your knowledge and skills with Advance Design Connection free webinars! Advance Design Connection Week is a series of webinars dedicated to BIM Workflow based on Graitec products!
About Advance Design Connection
Advance Design Connection is a powerful analysis solution for 3D Steel connection, fully integrated with Advance Design which is a global structural analysis software including a powerful 3D climatic generator, advanced stability checks and steel members design and optimization. Advance Design Connection can design all types of 3D connections using internal forces on members coming from Advance Design. It provides precise checks, results of strength, stiffness and buckling analysis of a steel joint. Joints are checked according to Eurocodes and North American codes (EC & AISC). Templates for most-used connections are available as well as wide range of predefined hot rolled and sheet welded members.
Join Advance Design Connection Week – free webinars which will be held in English and French.
During the webinars we will cover the following areas:
The workflow from Advance Design to Advance Design Connection –
In this webinar we will demonstrate how to export several connections of a steel structure which is modelled and analyzed in Graitec Advance Design (AD), to Graitec Advance Design Connection (ADC) software. You will see the automatic mapping procedure of sections and as well imported internal forces from AD. In the next step, we will create the connection geometry in ADC and run the analysis and code check process. Finally, we will go through the results of the analysis and status of the connection in ADC.
The workflow from Melody to Advance Design Connection –
We will show the export of a real building attachment calculated with Advance Design to Advance Design Connection (ADC). Then the export of tubular structures from Melody portal to Advance Design Connection. In Advance Design Connection where we will automatically retrieve the profiles and the efforts of Advance Design or Melody, we will build the fasteners in a few minutes and exploit the results.
The workflow Advance Design +Advance Steel to Advance Design Connection –
This webinar will cover the full workflow of steel connection design using Graitec Advance Design (AD), Autodesk Advance Steel (AS) and Graitec Advance Design Connection (ADC). First, we will export the structural node from AD to AS to transfer the sections, the geometry of the connection will be modelled in AS and exported to ADC. Then we will demonstrate how to import internal forces directly from AD into ADC.
The new version of Graitec Advance Design connection (ADC 20.1) –
The new version of Graitec Advance Design connection (ADC 20.1) will be released soon. In this presentation we will focus on new features and functionalities of the new version. Some of the highlights are: Cost estimation / Pre-design tool / Check of missing welds
Advance Design, even though it’s a FEM analysis software, has a wide range of possibility for importing/exporting model data. Structure designer even when not taking an active part in BIM process can profit from it by importing a model to his scturcutral software.
The most important data exchange formats are *GTCX and *SMLX, which allow us to fully use model data prepared in Graitec and Autodesk environment such as Revit, Advance Steel or BIM Designers. Using *IFC, *SDNF or *CIS2 lets us also import a model from any other software.
In this article I would like to focus on a different format. Possibility to import or export model to the library will give us a interesting work scenario. Using this, we can export a part of a model to a fresh file, for example extract a single story from a multi-story building. In the other way we can join multiple projects into a one, whole structre. This will come in handy when you need to join separated model that were imported from different softwares using many exchange formats. We can also extract some parts of model or even single elements to be later used in another project such as complicated trusses, segments, roofs etc.
Using a library can also allow us to open model created in newer version of Advance Design in older ones.
Import/export *abq library
In a few examples I’ll show advantages of using a library export.
Here you can see a 6-story residential building of a concrete structre. It was imported directly from Revit. All loads are already generated and the model is ready to be calculated.
We will use a library export to extract a single storeys or slabs for a detailed analysis. I select necessary objects – in this case a whole story with loads and upper elements and I choose a saving path. I can also pick a reference point which will allow me to precisely join models if needed. If a reference and insertion point is the same, the position of a structure won’t change in the global cooridinate system.
This exported part can now be imported into any project or a fresh file if we want to work on this specific story.
The is no loss of a geometry, elements proporties and loads. I can work on this story as it was a separated, newly created model. Intrestingly, I can later import it again in my base project if I’ve done any changes to this story.
This will be essential for a designers that work using different environments and are importing parts of a structure in *IFC format. Theoretically we can’t import next files into the same model, however, we can use a library to join them all.
Joining separated files into a one model
So imagine the opposite situation. I have 2 models which are analyzed separately since they don’t influence much on each other. However, they are both based on a common garage story, so for a foundation slab calculation I need to consider them in a one model.
Right now using a library import I can insert these 2 buildings to another file which consiste of garage story and foundation slab.
The garage story can be modeled or imported from different software. This example model was imported from Revit as 3 separated parts. Very important to mention is that every element get its individual GTC ID and its kept in each model. This allows us to synchronize a Revit model or export results, for example to do the reinforcement detailing using BIM Designers solution.
Different possibilities of using library
The simplest way is to export some already prepared structure elements which we used in previous projects. We can import them to next file and modify them if needed instead of creating whole thing once again.
Library export will also come in handy when we need for some reason to open a model in older Advance Design version. Customary modesl are converted automaticaly to a newer version, however this doesn’t work the opposite way.
Precise and intuitive steelwork functions are the result of over 25 years of experience in structural analysis. When it comes to modeling, analyzing and optimizing steel structures, Advance Design is a high-end solution that integrates all these processes within the same modern and easy-to-use interface.
The Steel Design Expert performs an advanced analysis and optimization of steel elements according to the selected standards. The available steelwork standards are CM66 (France), NTC 2008 (Italy), ANSI/AISC 360-10 (USA), CAN/CSA S16-14 (Canada) and Eurocodes 3 with several national appendixes:
Complete libraries of materials and cross sections
Advance Design provides complete libraries of materials (e. g., EN 10025-2, EN 10210-1, EN 10219-1) according to chapter 3 of EN 1993-1-1 and the possibility to define materials with custom properties. For cross sections, libraries such as European Profiles, Otua, UK Steel Sections and Autodesk Advance Steel Profiles are available. Also, you have the option to define libraries with customized cross-sections and even compound cross sections.
For advanced editing, visualization and calculation of geometrical characteristics of any type of cross section, Advance Design provides a specialized module: Cross Sections. This module can base the calculation (including torsionnal inertias and shear reduced sections) either on analytical formulas or on finite element analysis depending on the complexity of the cross section.
A large number of CAD functions are available for the easy modeling of steel structures. In addition, it is possible to automatically create trusses, portal frames and vaults which are available in Advance Design libraries. Using the corresponding structure generator, you can define the origin and the dimensions of the structure, the material and cross section of the elements, etc.
Since the version 2017, Advance Design includes the Steel Structure Designer. The Steel Structure Designer incorporates an extensive range of building definitions and tools enabling users to configure complete structures in seconds, from standard building shapes used in industry (platforms, steel halls), to more complex models, such as office buildings or structures with curved roofs, in seconds.
Complete customization of steel elements properties
The properties list for steel elements includes all the required parameters for deflection, buckling and lateral-torsional buckling verification. Castellated beams can be defined and designed with the ACB+ module (Arcelor Cellular Beams).
Detailed calculation assumptions
The calculation assumptions referring to the steel elements attributes can be defined for each element or selection of elements, using the corresponding element(s) properties list. For a fast definition of the steel elements properties, you can define design templates that can be applied on a selection of elements. Several design templates can be used in the same model. The design templates can be saved as XML files and imported in different projects.
The calculation assumptions referring to the calculation type, the steel optimization, the buckling parameters, the calculation sequences, etc. can be globally defined through a single operation, for all steel elements of the model:
The design assumptions can be modified at any time, in the modeling step and in the analysis step (when modifying the assumptions during the analysis step, it is necessary to rerun the steel calculation).
Accurate steel verification
The steel expert performs the steel verification, including the automatic buckling length computation and the automatic classification of cross sections according to Eurocodes 3. It provides access to results concerning the deflections verification, the cross section resistance, the element stability (buckling and lateral-torsional buckling) and the optimization of the steel shapes.
The command line informs about each step of the process. If errors are found during the calculation, the verification messages are displayed on the command line along with the IDs of the elements to which the messages refer. When the calculation process is completed, you have access to advanced result verification and a multitude of tools for customizing the display of the graphic results in the most suitable way.
Reliable fire verification
Advance Design can perform the fire verification of steel elements according to §4.2 (simplified method) of EN 1993-1-2 as fire resistance (§4.2.3) and critical temperature (§4.2.4). The software compares efforts given by frequent combinations with the maximum effort the element can handle at a given temperature. The definition of the fire verification conditions is a fast and easy process. You only have to:
Specify the fire exposure period:
Select the number of faces exposed to fire:
When the calculation is completed, the work ratios given by the fire verification are displayed on a specific tab of the shape sheet.
Maximize the efficiency of the materials consumption
The optimization process offers solutions for an efficient management of the materials consumption. You have full control of the optimization conditions: you can define the optimization mode, the suggestions process, the iteration process, etc.
The Stored shapes command allows you to configure the list of available shapes from which the steel expert may choose the optimal ones.
The steel expert compares the work ratio of the steel elements and suggests (if necessary) more adequate cross sections, that would correspond to the defined conditions.
For better visualization, the elements with a higher / lower work ratio than specified are displayed in red.
Advanced calculation reports
The shape sheets command allows you to view all the available results for a selected steel element: cross section properties, deflections, strength, stability, fire resistance and cross section class according to Eurocodes 3 in one dialog box.
You can generate a report with these results starting from the element’s shape sheet. This result is complete with all verifications and also mentions the corresponding article in the Norm.
The steel verification report offers a complete diagnosis of the model in different outputs: tables, texts, graphical post-processing. The report can be customized to suit your requirements.
Advanced calculation reports
Once the report content has been defined, there is no need to recreate the calculation report when the model undergoes any modification. The report content, including post-processing views, automatically updates at each calculation iteration (if specified) while preserving all the settings previously made:
The release 2021 of Advance Design features a new concept called “super-element”. The super element is a compound object which consists in a set of individual linear elements grouped for a design purpose, for example to check the limit deflection of the rafters beams on a steel frame or the maximal deflection on a continuous column across several levels.
The definition of a super element can be done in many ways, including by using the Create command from the right-click menu or from the ribbon, as well as using the List property, available on the property list of linear elements:
When creating the super element, Advance Design will check several conditions such as materials, cross-section, orientation. Each newly created super element has its own unique ID number. It can be used, among other things, for selection or for displaying on a model view, thanks to the new type of annotation for linear elements and the possibility to display colours per super element:
The super element concept is used for the standard check of steel elements: therefore, several new options are available on design parameters of steel elements. As soon as the user enables the “Super element” verification option is the property list, the corresponding deflection group of properties is available for editing, properties which applies to the entire super element:
The results of the deflection verification can be checked separately for the element and the super element either graphically, using the postprocessing diagrams for deflections, or on the Deflection tab on the Shape sheet dialog:
In a similar way the list of available options for the calculation of the Lateral-torsional buckling length (on the Lateral-torsional buckling dialog) has been updated. Note, that the content on the list depends on whether the dialog is opened for a super element or an element that is not a part of any super element. When opened for a super element, the list contains only two items Auto calc and super element ratio.
You can have more details about this new feature on the technical what’s new document available on your Graitec Advantage account (advantage.graitec.com).
Advance Design BIM system is dedicated to structural engineers who require a comprehensive solution for simulating and optimizing all their projects. It includes a user-friendly structural modeler, automatic load and combination generators, a powerful FEM analysis engine (static, dynamic, time history, non linear, buckling, large displacement analysis, etc.), comprehensive wizards for designing concrete and steel members according to Eurocodes, efficient result post-processing, and automatic report generators.
Some of the features of Advance Design are a new design module for timber frames to Eurocode 5 (German, English, French, Romanian and Czech National Appendices), calculation of cracked inertia for linear and planar elements, implementation of the Baumann method for reinforcement plates to Eurocode 2, verification of stresses and crack openings as a function of the real reinforcement implemented in the element for Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1).
Main information regarding stresses and crack openings
Seismic design of structures is mainly focused on developing a favorable plastic mechanism to render the structure strength, ductility, and stability.
The behavior of a structure regarding the action of a major earthquake is anything but ductile, taking into account the oscillating nature of the seismic action and the fact that plastic hinges appear rather randomly. To achieve the requirements of ductility, structural elements, and thus the entire structural system must be able to dissipate the energy induced by the seismic action, without substantial reduction of resistance.
Both Romanian seismic design code P100-1/2006 and Romanian standard SR EN 1998-1, provide a method for prioritizing structural resilience (“capacity design method”) in order to better choose the necessary mechanism for dissipation ofenergy. Determination of the design efforts and the efforts for elements will be in accordance to the rules of this method.
Flat slabs are more and more used nowadays, given their structural, architectural and MEP benefits. Of course, this comes with a list of design particularities – negligible in typical framing structures (such as punching shear) – that the structural engineer must address in order to achieve safeness and performance.
Some of the main benefits of using flat-slabs:
Reduced manual labour for concrete formwork
Reduced quantities of formwork
Smooth interior surface that serves architects and also mechanical engineers
An important advantage of the innovating multi-platform Advance BIM Designers collection of apps that allow automatic generation of 3D reinforcement for reinforced concrete elements is the possibility of direct integration into the interface of the Advance Design calculation software.
One of the many benefits of this integration is a more efficient footing presizing process, after the structure is modelled and a FEM analysis is performed directly in Advance Design.
Advance BIM Designers reuses all information related to material, size or forces in a support and automatically generates reinforcement cages, drawings and reports, based on user-defined reinforcement assumptions.
ADVANCE Design 2016 SP1 offers more than 140 improvements and corrections. The main new features in this release are the the moving loads generator (that enables the user to create traffic loads on road bridges according to EN1991-2 – Section 4) and a new cross section library for Precast Concrete BridgeBeams, please see the relevant videos on these below: