In this article, we will show you how to flip or rotate a section while keeping its local axes unchanged.
Why Would I Need That?
Flipping a section is often required when modelling.
For example, on the truss beam below, the Channel section defined on top member will not be left with its default orientation:
It will most certainly be flipped, using the ‘Angle’ property:
This will not only rotate the section but also its local axes:
This modification of member local axes can be a problem when working in a plane workspace, where several degrees of freedom are automatically disabled due to 2D simplifications:
Now, how can we define an in-plane rotational release when the corresponding degree-of-freedom (Rz) is not available?
Fortunately, there is no need to switch to a 3D workplane.
All you need is to flip the section without altering its local axes.
This can be achieved by adding the ‘S’ character at the end of section name.
This will rotate the section while keeping the in-plane bending about the y-y direction:
And because the Ry degree-of-freedom is still available, one can simply release it:
This article showed you how to orientate a member and define the required releases without necessarily switching to a complex 3D workplane.
This simple trick in section naming will let you benefit from all the advantages of a 2D analysis (short calculation time, easy result post-processing) while still getting the expected structural behaviour.
Temporary structures should not be designed with the characteristic values of wind velocity or velocity pressure from the Eurocode 1.
Indeed, these characteristic values are determined considering a return period of 50 years, which does not suit the provisional nature of such temporary constructions. Therefore, temporary structures will often be designed with a smaller return period than the usual 50 years.
Recommended return periods (n) are given in EN1991-1-6:
This return period value is then used to compute the probability factor (cprob) as per formula (4.2) from EN1991-1-4:
K is the shape parameter defined in the national appendix. The recommended value is K = 0,2
p = 1/n (with n being the return period, in years)
n is the exponent defined in the national appendix. The recommended value is n = 0,5
Be careful, in the cprob formula, n (the exponent) should not be mistaken with n (return period).
Of course, considering a 50-year return period in the above formula leads to cprob = 1,0.
Therefore, do not expect any benefit from the cprob factor for structures in use for more than a year:
Wind velocity for a return period of n years is then given by:2
Assume the case of a temporary structure in use from September to November (3 months) in a region where where characteristic wind velocity (for a return period of 50 years) is 24 m/s.
This temporary structure will be designed for a return period of 5 years:
The corresponding probability factor will be:
Resulting I the following wind velocity:
This results in a 15% reduction on wind velocity.
Advance Design results
Advance Design lets the user set the desired return period as well as the shape parameter and the probability exponent.
The corresponding wind velocity is then automatically computed:
Considering the appropriate return period when designing a temporary structure can lead to a significant reduction of wind velocity, thus scaling down the corresponding wind forces.
Not to mention the other parameters, such as the season factor cseason, that can diminish wind action even more.
When creating a design model for a structure, one of the steps is to prepare combinations for defined load cases. Most often we use the mechanism of automatic generation of combinations, according to the rules of the standard set in the project configuration. If necessary, we can modify the rules and relations between cases or case families using the available mechanisms in the Concomitance between load cases dialog window (available for Eurocode combinations).
However, while working on many projects there are situations when we want to define a set of our own combinations. Of course, in the case of a small number of load cases and a small number of required combinations, this can be done directly in the combination dialog. Nevertheless, in this article we will take a look at more effective methods, which will work especially well in case of a larger number of cases/combinations and when we want to use our own combination definition in other projects. These will be two solutions: using the mechanism to export and import combination definitions using an Excel spreadsheet and the mechanism to import combination definitions as a CBN text file.
Using an Excel spreadsheet
Starting with version 2020.1 Advance Design allows for easy and quick exchange of combination definitions between the current project and an Excel spreadsheet. For this purpose, there are two dedicated buttons available in the Combinations window.
The Export button exports definitions of all existing in the project load combinations to a new Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. For this a dedicated xlsx file is created on the path selected by the user. The Import button reads definitions of load combinations from the selected spreadsheet and adds them to existing definitions on the current project.
Let’s look at the data structure in the spreadsheet. The first row contains the column names, while the following rows contain the definitions of the subsequent combinations.
This column contains the identification numbers of the successive load combinations.
CODE and TYPE columns
These columns contain the combination type text code (CODE) as well as the name of the combination type (TYPE). The names and type codes depend on the settings of the project location – working language and standard for the load combinations. Below is an example of codes and types for the Eurocode settings:
It is important that when editing or creating a worksheet, the combination types in the TYPE column are consistent with the types available for the current standard. Therefore, in the TYPE column, the cell values are selected from the list.
CAS and COEFF columns
These columns are always defined in pairs and specify the load case ID number (CAS) and the corresponding coefficient (COEFF). The number of pairs of these columns’ headers should be equal to the maximum number of load cases in the most extended combination. Of course we can reduce or increase the number of pairs of headers if necessary. The number of pairs of values in a given row with the definition of the combination depends only on the given combination, but at least one value pair should be defined.
When you import load combination definitions from a selected spreadsheet, these combinations are added to the list of existing combinations in the current project. If combinations with the same ID number already exist in the project, then the ID number of the imported combinations is changed to the first free number. If the combination definition in the Excel file is incorrect (e.g. contains case numbers that do not exist in the model), then the combination is omitted during import. In these cases a warning appears.
Using the possibilities of a spreadsheet, including the possibility of using complex formulas, macros or cooperation with other programs, we have almost unlimited possibilities to prepare and automate the creation of our own load combinations.
Using CBN files
CBN files are text documents containing combination definitions. Generation of the predefined load combination with using the CBN file is based on loading the file from the disk using the Loads CBN button, located in the Combinations window. We can also preview the contents of the file without the generation of combination by using the View button.
To define your own file with the definition of a combination, you need to create a text file similar in structure to the predefined .cbn files. Lines starting with # or // are used to enter comments / notes and are optional. The remaining lines are treated as definitions of subsequent combinations and consist of case codes and coefficients separated by spaces. Additionally, at the end of each line there is space for the combination code and for the comment. Let’s look through the contents of the sample file:
In this example there are 3 lines of combinations, so 3 combinations will be generated. CASE1, CASE2, CASE3 are the type codes for 3 different load cases. Next to each code there are coefficients given with a character. Codes such as ECELUSTR are codes for the generated combinations. They can be arbitrary texts, in which case they will be used as an additional description, or they can be created in the naming convention for a given standard, so that they are automatically recognized as suitable combinations for design calculations. The text at the end of each line of a combination is optional and is not used during combination generation. It can be our additional description visible only during file preview. Note that in the last combination, in the second and third case coefficients equal to zero appear, which means that this combination will only contain the first load case. Exactly the same effect you get if there are no codes and coefficients for these two last load cases in this line. In the picture below you can see the effect of combination generation for the above example.
When loading the file, combinations are generated according to custom definitions, and the combination code is assigned to combinations accordingly. The combination name is generated based on the combination definition.
Note that when using an Excel file, to identify load cases their ID number is used. This allows you to precisely determine the relationship, regardless of the type of load case. However, in this solution we need to know the ID numbers of these cases before the combination is generated.
In case of CBN files, load case codes are used. Thanks to the codes it is easier to prepare a universal combination definition, which can then be used for many projects, but at the same time we have to be careful about the compatibility of the codes in the CBN file and in the project.
In every new project the load case codes are the same for all load cases. They can then either be modified manually by us or updated automatically by the program during combination generation (the program asks for this during combination generation).
Manual modification of the codes is useful when we have prepared the combination definitions in the CBN file using our own codes. In such a case, we can mark each case explicitly in a given project, making sure that they match the codes in the CBN file.
If you allow the program to automatically complete the codes during combination definition, remember that the same codes are assigned to all cases of a given type. This means that all fixed load cases will have the same code, similarly all snow load cases etc. This solution is convenient when there is no need to combine cases inside the same type.
Let’s see the effect of one exemplary row defining the combination in the CBM file:
CASE1 +1.10 CASE2 +1.20 CASE3 +1.30 CombA
Example 1. There are 3 different load cases with names and codes respectively: A – CASE1, B – CASE2 and C – CASE3. The result will be one combination with all cases:
A*1.1 + B*1.2 + C*1.3
Example 2. There are 2 different load cases with names and codes respectively: A – CASE1 and B – CASE2. The result will be one combination:
A*1.1 + B*1.2
Example 3. There are 3 different load cases with names and codes in the project: A – CASE1, B – CASE1 and C – CASE3. Note that the first two cases have the same code. The result will be two combinations:
A*1.1 + C*1.3
B*1.1 + C*1.3
As you can see both mechanisms, either using an Excel spreadsheet or using CNB text files, allow you to easily and quickly create your own sets of load case combinations in Advance Design. I encourage you to get closer to these solutions and use them while working with your own projects.
All modern design applications require a solid testing mechanism in order to detect any regression regarding the quality of the results but also to cover all areas of the application (GUI, CAD, correct workflows, …).
Advance Design has a mechanism based on a script that works like a batch session. This mechanism was mainly designed as a system for automatic tests to offer access to almost all areas in the application. In this way we can reproduce various scenarios.
Since it’s quite extensive and very cryptic, the main idea to use this mechanism is to start from a base script and adjusted or completed with the other commands. A base script can be generated by Advance Design. Usually an automatic test in our QA system consist in a model and a script. Both are passed to Advance Design in command line and the application executes the script.
In the following points we will go into details for such scenarios.
The base model creation
The first step consists in creating a model using your preferred localization and norms. The creation of load cases and their configuration is also recommended.
The analysis hypothesis, options for concrete analysis, steel analysis, etc. can also be configured at this step. Then, after saving the model, a back-up is recommended because it will be needed at a later step.
Until now we could say we have a complete environment. From this point we can start generating the structure elements (linear elements, planar elements, footings….).
2. The elements creation through scripting
2.1. Commands syntax and script composition
The syntax of a command that creates an element with geometry is composed by:
the_name_of_the_command+space+(x_coordinate;y_coordinate;z_coordinate)[and repeat the ’+ space+(x_coordinate;y_coordinate;z_coordinate)’ for all the points in geometry]
’.’ is the coordinate decimal separator, and ‘enter’ is the separator between different commands, so each command is on a different line in a script.
A script contains multiples commands and the last command has to be ’end_auto_script‘.
You can generate a list of commands as bellow in Excel with macros, Dynamo or with another familiar program or tool.
This script will generate the elements in the model like in the picture bellow:
In order to create elements using commands as the ones above, when running one of them or the script the following snap modes have to be disabled: extension, tracking, ortho, relative and length on element.
All the commands executed by the user are recorded in the history of the console which is accessible in the input console line (E.G.: selecting an element, calling a ribbon or menu command like creating an element, etc. …).
For checking any executed command syntax, scrolling through the commands history is possible by clicking the input console and pressing left arrow key for each command (using right arrow will walk you back to the last executed command, opposite to the left arrow key, but only after starting to use left arrow). To copy it the recommended way is by selecting the text with the mouse, right clicking it and selecting copy from the contextual menu.
2.2. Script saving, recording and playing
If the script is generated with Excel/Dynamo/etc. then make sure the generated file has the extension set as .ads.
For manual script creation a text file with ads extension is needed. It can be created with Notepad or any other text file editor. After the creation of file copy the script described above at point 2.A. in the empty file and save it as your_script_file_name.ads .
For script recording in AD, right clicking in the input line of the console and choosing ‘start recording’ from the contextual menu starts the recording. After the user interaction with the program (E.G.: selecting an element, calling a ribbon or menu command like creating an element, modifying options in a dialog, etc…), right clicking in the input line of the console and choosing ‘stop recording’ a dialog is launched for choosing the name and the location of the script. There are some limitations that are listed at the end of the document.
To play the script for scenario 2.1, right click in the input line of the console and choosing ‘Load script’ from the contextual menu starts a dialog to choose the script file. After choosing it AD start playing the commands from the script one by one with a delay between them. The user should not move the mouse or press any key while playback is in progress. At the end a message will be printed in the console that notifies the end of the operation.
3. Model calculation and reports generation
At this step start recording a new script as described above. The automatic wind, snow, traffic loads, etc… and combination must be generated if needed. Then the analysis model should be created, maybe also the concrete analysis, steel analysis, etc…. Then in the report generation dialog add the needed reports and optionally change the report type: (Doc, docx, xls, xlsx(for the these first 4 extensions Office suite is required), rtf, txt). In the gif sample, the selected type is xls but in the script rtf type is selected in case Office is not installed. The report is generated in the document folder of the model and it is not automatically opened.
In the end you need to stop the recording. The resulting script can be used as a template script and should be modified/adapted to include the creating elements commands (from the point 2.1.). They should be added right after the last set_unit command:
4. Running the script in batch mode.
At this step you should use a copy of the backup model from the 1st point. Running a batch mode can be achieved by running a bat in which the command is having the following syntax:
“X:\Path to AD\Bin\AdvanceDesign.exe” /s “Y:\path to script\script name.ads” /m “Z:\path to model\model name.fto”
“C:\Program Files\Graitec\Advance Design\2021\Bin\AdvanceDesign.exe” /s “d:\AutoTests\models for new tests\newtest\combined script.ads” /m “d:\AutoTests\models for new tests\newtest\FTDoc15.fto”
A bat file can be created in Notepad and saved as ‘file_name.bat’ when selecting all types as the extension in the save as dialog.
5. Scripting recording and playback limitations
Double-click in pilot; instead, used right click or other commands
Combos in toolbars.
The Data Grid dialog (different technology, in work).
Buttons that open dialogs in Property list and the recording of the GUI operations in that dialogs.
Changing properties in property list commands might have to be updated at each version/subversion of AD because the commands are depending on the identifiers of the properties which are changed almost each version.
Changing the sections and materials for elements from property list.
Changing height for level in Property list
Double-click on result curves in order to save them as *.jpg
Only basic modifications in tables are supported
The measurement units must be the same as the ones installed by the kit
When creating a circle, the radius will be specified in console, not by clicking on the screen.
Modifications of snapping are to be done using the toolbar/ribbon.
Creating loads on selection.
All needed section cuts will be created before starting to register the script.
Mesh preview for planar elements.
Selecting the work plane.
When creating the analysis model, the script should compute a new analysis. When automatically running, if an analysis was computed for the current model, the check boxes for analysis types are disabled, therefore the test will try to open an existent analysis (which does not exist since we should run on a clean model). Therefore, when registering the script, even if the model is a new one and the option to create a new analysis is already selected, select “Create new analysis” and then the analysis type(s).
Do not use right click in reports window. Use instead left click and the existing buttons.
In order to change the cases/combinations for the report, do not use the Cases/Combinations window. Instead, use the Report properties window (select report and click Properties button) select advanced options to expand the dialog and check the specific case/combination and use the analysis type combo from the below of the extended window:
When adding more family cases or loads, do not use the keyboard to insert the number. Use instead the arrow buttons.
The two slides for size from the display options window (Alt+x): or from the ribbon
The window for pressure generation.
6. The power of automation
This tool is very efficient for our QA system but can be very useful also for anyone who wants to automatize repetitive scenarios but also to feed Advance Design with entire building structures extracted from another application. Just do the scenario inside the application, save the script, adapt it if you need it and run it.
One of the specific and more difficult types of reinforcement to model in Revit is punching shear reinforcement on RC slabs. In this short article, we will look at how you can improve the process of preparing the drawing documentation in Revit by generating punching reinforcement using the Dynamo script, based on the reinforcement calculated in Advance Design.
Apart from the preparation of the script in Dynamo, the operating procedure consists of several simple steps:
Calculate the Punching Shear Reinforcement with Advance Design in a model synchronized with Revit.
Export the Punching Shear Reinforcement results from Advance Design to Excel, using results tables.
Create and Run a Dynamo script that reads the data from the Excel sheet and generates the appropriate reinforcement in Revit.
The basis of the presentation will be a RC slab supporting columns that is calculated in Advance Design and then synchronized with Revit. Although we use a simple model with some plates and columns to present the process, we can successfully apply it to real projects.
In the example, the design calculations of reinforcement in reinforced concrete slabs were carried out, as well as the verification of the shear punching along with the determination of the required reinforcement.
In the case of bending reinforcement in the slab, we can automatically generate the reinforcement in Revit using Advance PowerPack tools. Also, with the use of the PowerPack, we can create additional structural reinforcement, such as edge or hole reinforcement.
In this example, however, we will only focus on the punching shear reinforcement. For this purpose, we export the report table ‘Provided punching reinforcement around perimeters’ from Advance Design to Excel sheet. The table contains all the data we need, including the ID numbers of slabs and columns, the location of perimeters with punching shear reinforcement, the number and diameter of bars in the perimeters as well as spacings.
The Dynamo script needs only one input – Excel file. It extracts data from the spreadsheet and then groups the read data relative to plates and columns. Then the existing floors and structural columns in Revit model are found using the numbers stored in the ‘mark’ parameter, which was completed during model synchronization with Advance Design. Then other required information is collected from the Revit model, such as floor thickness, reinforcement cover or column geometry parameters. In the next step vertical bars of the shear punching reinforcement are generated, and thanks to the fact that they are grouped into perimeters, bars can be inserted as one set in Revit.
In addition to importing geometric information, the script can complement a number of other data. For example, for created rebars the „mark” parameter could be modified by combination of ID numbers of a floor + column + perimeter. Depending on the needs, we can group the bars in various ways, as well as add some shared parameters with the identification data, in order to be able to use them in reinforcement tables, tags or filters.
This is an example showing how Dynamo can be used to generate rebar in Revit saving a lot of time on the modeling and detailing side, but it shows as well the great potential that lies in the ability to automate the process of creating drawing documentation, especially with the use of detailed results from Advance Design!
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Advance Design 2021.1 Update is enhanced with new functionalities and improvements with high benefits for the end-user. It is articulated around a few main subjects:
Modelling and workflow enhancements
New options and improvements to the Steel design
New options and improvements to the Concrete design
Improvements to concrete and steel Design modules (previously known as BIM Designers modules)
Among many new functionalities and improvements, we would like to highlight:
Exchange of load combination definitions with Excel allows easy management of load combination definitions by using new Export and Import
Improvements to the transfer of loads to Design modules allows easy transfer of the list of definitions of load combinations to design modules.
Increased performance of Design modules significant increase in work comfort, especially thanks to the substantial reducing the time of generation of drawings.
RC calculations for concrete beams defined as super elements allow the design of multiple span beams having different height and support widths as a single element.
Interactive drawings for steel connections easy and full control over the content of the drawing thanks to the ability to freely compose drawings, easy modification of the location of drawing components, and scale for views.
Update 1 to Advance Design 2021 also comes with many other improvements and adjustments following the feedback received from thousands of users worldwide. It brings also a big number of corrections of known problems and also includes all the fixes and improvements made with the previously released Hotfix 1 (2021.0.1) and Hotfix 2 (2021.0.2).
We are inviting you to take a quick look at the selected improvements brought to the Advance Design 2021.1 Update.
Modelling and workflow enhancements
Advance Design 2021.1 comes with several new features and improvements dedicated to the modelling and workflow.
Exchange of load combination definitions with Excel
Thanks to new Export to Excel and Import from Excel commands we can easily manage load combination definitions by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Pushover: Displaying a report with status only for selected plastic hinges
When analyzing the results of the pushover analysis by using report tables with the status of plastic hinges, the content of these tables is now filtered to the current selection of elements in the model. It greatly facilitates viewing the results, as we can focus on the statuses of plastic hinges from selected elements only.
Simultaneous creation of holes for many surface elements
When creating holes in surface elements, it is now possible to create a hole in multiple elements simultaneously on the basis of a polyline cutting through several contours.
Shortcut to the Section Editor directly on the ribbon
To facilitate and speed up the opening of the module for creating and editing cross-sections, an icon with the command to open the module directly has been added to the Manager ribbon.
Thickness in tooltips
The Thickness property has been added to the list of available attributes to be selected for the content of tooltips.
System names on the color legend
When displaying a color legend for elements colored by systems, in addition to system ID the name of systems is now displayed. It greatly facilitates the identification and improves the quality of the created documentation.
Improvements to the transfer of loads to Design modules
To improve the transfer of load-related information when transferring data from the Advance Design model to the design modules, new options have been added to easily transfer the list of self-created or modified definitions of load combinations to design modules.
New possibilities for Steel Design
Advance Design 2021.1 comes with several new powerful features dedicated to the design of steel structures.
The new version of the Canadian code for the steel design – CSA S16-19
Since version AD 2021.1 it is possible to perform design calculations of steel linear elements using the current version of the Canadian CSA standard: CSA S16-19.
Update of the Canadian CISC 11 steel section database
Steel profiles from the CISC 11 catalogue (the 11th CISC handbook) have been updated. The changes mainly concerned with changes in naming, adding missing profiles to catalogues and slight changes in the values of the characteristics for a few selected profiles.
Improvements to displaying results of the steel design
A number of improving changes have been made to the presentation of design results of steel elements (according to Eurocode 3) in the Shape Sheet window and related reports. These changes increase the readability of the results as well as allow for a more detailed verification of the results. The most important of these are:
Uniform rules for the presentation of results for individual strength checks.
The cross-section class is now displayed for each check separately, determined on the point where the check was done.
Replacing the oblique bending check by bending with an axial force, bending with shear forces, and biaxial bending checks.
Imperfections on steel columns defined as superelement
Steel columns defined as superelements can be used for the automatic generation of imperfections (according to Eurocode 3). During the generation of forces, the user can decide whether to consider the elements that intersect the superelement.
Improvement in the creation of generic steel joints
To facilitate and speed up the definition of generic joints for steel elements, the command to create them based on the current selection of steel elements has been added. A new command is available on the right-click menu and creates a single connection for steel elements that are in contact at the same point.
New possibilities for Concrete Design
Advance Design 2021.1 also comes with several improvements dedicated to the design of Reinforced Concrete structures.
The new version of the Canadian code for the concrete design – CSA 23.3-19.
With the Advance Design 2021.1 Update it is possible to perform dimensioning calculations of concrete linear and planar elements using the current version of the Canadian CSA standard: CSA 23.3-19.
Superelement for RC beams
The super element concept is now applied to the concrete linear elements for the reinforcement design according to Eurocode. This gives a possibility for the design of multiple span beams having different height and support widths as a single element
Extension of the list of rebar diameters for Poland
In order to enable the calculation of the real reinforcement with the use of reinforcement diameters used on the Polish market, new diameters (18, 22, 28, and 35) have been added to the list of reinforcement bar diameters available on the reinforcement settings window. This change is available for projects having the localization set to Poland.
Improvements to Design modules
In the latest version of the Advance Design, many improvements have been introduced to the Design modules.
Unification of brand names
In the current 2021.1 version, further changes have been made to unify Graitec software brand names. Accordingly, the design modules previously named Advance BIM Designers are now called as design modules of Advance Design.
One of the most important changes introduced with this update of design modules is the increase in performance. Thanks to optimization in many areas, there are significantly reduced times of starting modules, loading projects, calculations and, above all, generation of drawings.
Improvements to the info panel
The info panel content for the RC modules has been supplemented with additional types of results, including: minimal reinforcement areas for beams, more details for top longitudinal reinforcement on beams, buckling information for columns and punching verification for foundations.
The Slovakia localization is now available for design modules, which allows for running the design calculations according to Slovak appendixes to Eurocode.
The new layout of the Reinforcement Assumption dialog windows
The layout of the Reinforcement Assumption dialog windows has been updated for the RC Column, RC Wall and Footing modules. As with most other windows with a new layout (tree menu on the left, parameter fields in the central part, and explanatory drawings on the right), the definition and change of parameters are much easier and faster.
Improvements to views
A number of improvements have been made to the graphical presentation of the RC views, including a possibility for hiding a formwork from 3D views, a possibility for changing a render mode, a possibility for filtering of the displayed loads and a new mechanism for displaying loads on RC beams.
Interactive drawings for steel connections
Drawings generated by the Steel Connection module are now managed by the interactive drawing mechanism, similar to other RC modules. Thank to this the user has control over the composition and all drawing elements.
Double Angle section for diagonals for Gusset Joints
The 2021.1 update of Advance Design Steel Connection offers a new configuration for the Gusset Joint – the double angle section for one, two or three diagonals
Learn more about Advance Design Update 2021.1 from our dedicated webinar!
If you are Advance Design User – Gain priceless knowledge about ADVANCE Design and be the first to know about the new features during Advance Design User Summit 2020!
Dear Advance Design users,we would like to thank you for being a Graitec customer and creating great, innovative and complex projects using our software. Maintaining a positive relationship with you is crucial for us, as is developing the new functionalities of our software according to your needs and indications. In order to thank you for your loyalty, we would like to invite you to our Advance Design User Summit 2020 – an event where you will have the opportunity to gain advanced technical knowledge provided by our professionals, as well as to learn about the upcoming novelties in Advance Design software. We invite you to read the agenda and register your place!
Modeling and defining the values of all climatic loads is a time-consuming process and a source of possible errors. The amount of time spent for the calculation of climatic effects can be significantly reduced, while assuring more accurate results. You can obtain in no time the climatic loads intensity and distribution on your structure using a fast and easy-to-use Advance Design function: the 3D Climatic loads generator.
Implemented Eurocode 1 and National specific standards
Advance Design provides several climatic standards such as NV 2009 (France), NP082-04 / CR1-1-3-2005 (Romania), Eurocode 1, Canadian (NBC2010 or 2015) and US (ASCE 7-10) codes, with different national appendixes:
The choice is done in the global project’s settings.
The structure and roof shape is taken into account, therefore you can create loads on portal frames, parapet walls, lattice structures, scaffolding elements, buildings with dominant face, panels, horizontal roofs, two slopes roofs, isolated roofs, protruding roofs, roofs with awning, etc.
Examples of automatic generation of climatic loads on various structures
Wind loads on multiple roofs
Snow loads on multiple roofs
Wind loads on awning
Snow accumulation on portal frames with a negative slope
Snow accumulation on portal frames with a negative slope
You can automatically generate all the climatic loads on a structure in an efficient way, which saves a great amount of time:
Select the appropriate climatic standard.
Generate windwalls on 3D structures.
Create load case families for snow or / and wind and configure the advanced properties (if necessary).
Access the snow and wind loads values map to define the structure location. With a single click, the values of the wind speed, wind pressure, snow load and exceptional snow loads on the structure faces and roof are automatically defined according to the selected region:
Launch the climatic generator
The climatic load cases and loads are automatically displayed in the graphic area and also, in the Pilot, in the corresponding loads family, providing access to an efficient management:
Accurate and prompt update
If the structure or the loads properties are modified after generating the climatic loads, a single click is enough to update the loads, according to the new conditions.
If you’re a structural engineer looking for powerful steel connection design software, then make sure you tune into our free Advance Design Connection week.
Boost your knowledge and skills with Advance Design Connection free webinars! Advance Design Connection Week is a series of webinars dedicated to BIM Workflow based on Graitec products!
About Advance Design Connection
Advance Design Connection is a powerful analysis solution for 3D Steel connection, fully integrated with Advance Design which is a global structural analysis software including a powerful 3D climatic generator, advanced stability checks and steel members design and optimization. Advance Design Connection can design all types of 3D connections using internal forces on members coming from Advance Design. It provides precise checks, results of strength, stiffness and buckling analysis of a steel joint. Joints are checked according to Eurocodes and North American codes (EC & AISC). Templates for most-used connections are available as well as wide range of predefined hot rolled and sheet welded members.
Join Advance Design Connection Week – free webinars which will be held in English and French.
During the webinars we will cover the following areas:
The workflow from Advance Design to Advance Design Connection –
In this webinar we will demonstrate how to export several connections of a steel structure which is modelled and analyzed in Graitec Advance Design (AD), to Graitec Advance Design Connection (ADC) software. You will see the automatic mapping procedure of sections and as well imported internal forces from AD. In the next step, we will create the connection geometry in ADC and run the analysis and code check process. Finally, we will go through the results of the analysis and status of the connection in ADC.
The workflow from Melody to Advance Design Connection –
We will show the export of a real building attachment calculated with Advance Design to Advance Design Connection (ADC). Then the export of tubular structures from Melody portal to Advance Design Connection. In Advance Design Connection where we will automatically retrieve the profiles and the efforts of Advance Design or Melody, we will build the fasteners in a few minutes and exploit the results.
The workflow Advance Design +Advance Steel to Advance Design Connection –
This webinar will cover the full workflow of steel connection design using Graitec Advance Design (AD), Autodesk Advance Steel (AS) and Graitec Advance Design Connection (ADC). First, we will export the structural node from AD to AS to transfer the sections, the geometry of the connection will be modelled in AS and exported to ADC. Then we will demonstrate how to import internal forces directly from AD into ADC.
The new version of Graitec Advance Design connection (ADC 20.1) –
The new version of Graitec Advance Design connection (ADC 20.1) will be released soon. In this presentation we will focus on new features and functionalities of the new version. Some of the highlights are: Cost estimation / Pre-design tool / Check of missing welds
Advance Design, even though it’s a FEM analysis software, has a wide range of possibility for importing/exporting model data. Structure designer even when not taking an active part in BIM process can profit from it by importing a model to his scturcutral software.
The most important data exchange formats are *GTCX and *SMLX, which allow us to fully use model data prepared in Graitec and Autodesk environment such as Revit, Advance Steel or BIM Designers. Using *IFC, *SDNF or *CIS2 lets us also import a model from any other software.
In this article I would like to focus on a different format. Possibility to import or export model to the library will give us a interesting work scenario. Using this, we can export a part of a model to a fresh file, for example extract a single story from a multi-story building. In the other way we can join multiple projects into a one, whole structre. This will come in handy when you need to join separated model that were imported from different softwares using many exchange formats. We can also extract some parts of model or even single elements to be later used in another project such as complicated trusses, segments, roofs etc.
Using a library can also allow us to open model created in newer version of Advance Design in older ones.
Import/export *abq library
In a few examples I’ll show advantages of using a library export.
Here you can see a 6-story residential building of a concrete structre. It was imported directly from Revit. All loads are already generated and the model is ready to be calculated.
We will use a library export to extract a single storeys or slabs for a detailed analysis. I select necessary objects – in this case a whole story with loads and upper elements and I choose a saving path. I can also pick a reference point which will allow me to precisely join models if needed. If a reference and insertion point is the same, the position of a structure won’t change in the global cooridinate system.
This exported part can now be imported into any project or a fresh file if we want to work on this specific story.
The is no loss of a geometry, elements proporties and loads. I can work on this story as it was a separated, newly created model. Intrestingly, I can later import it again in my base project if I’ve done any changes to this story.
This will be essential for a designers that work using different environments and are importing parts of a structure in *IFC format. Theoretically we can’t import next files into the same model, however, we can use a library to join them all.
Joining separated files into a one model
So imagine the opposite situation. I have 2 models which are analyzed separately since they don’t influence much on each other. However, they are both based on a common garage story, so for a foundation slab calculation I need to consider them in a one model.
Right now using a library import I can insert these 2 buildings to another file which consiste of garage story and foundation slab.
The garage story can be modeled or imported from different software. This example model was imported from Revit as 3 separated parts. Very important to mention is that every element get its individual GTC ID and its kept in each model. This allows us to synchronize a Revit model or export results, for example to do the reinforcement detailing using BIM Designers solution.
Different possibilities of using library
The simplest way is to export some already prepared structure elements which we used in previous projects. We can import them to next file and modify them if needed instead of creating whole thing once again.
Library export will also come in handy when we need for some reason to open a model in older Advance Design version. Customary modesl are converted automaticaly to a newer version, however this doesn’t work the opposite way.
A new advanced analysis type is available on Advance Design 2021 – the Pushover analysis.
The pushover is a method to predict the non-linear behavior of a structure under seismic loads. It can help demonstrate how progressive failure in buildings really occurs, and also identify the mode of final failure. The advantage of the pushover analysis is that the material nonlinearity and plastic hinging are considered but without the complications of the dynamic behavior. The principle of the pushover method is applying lateral loads to the structure in an incremental manner and monitoring the occurrence of non-linear behavior (at fixed points called plastic hinges) in order to finally obtain a base shear versus control node displacement diagram.
Introduction to the Pushover method
The pushover analysis consists of several steps of calculations that need to be conducted in the following order.
Determination of the seismic lateral load pattern
In order to perform the pushover analysis, we need to increment the lateral loads following a specified fixed pattern. There are many possible load patterns described in the literature and seismic standards. For example, loads can be applied on the gravity center of each story linearly increasing in height, where load values are based on the seismic base shear force.
Defining plastic hinges in the model at locations where plasticity is expected to occur
During the pushover analysis the loads are incremented on the structure while plastic deformations are being constantly monitored. As plastic deformations are most likely to occur at specific locations, we define the non-linear behavior locally, on elements, via the plastic hinges, whilst maintaining the elastic behavior on all other elements. Generally, the behavior of plastic hinges is provided by seismic codes, in the form of tables or formulas that make it possible to construct the characteristic curves for plastic hinges. In the case of concrete elements, characteristic curves strongly depend on the provided reinforcement. For this reason, an initial classic linear seismic analysis should be conducted prior to the pushover analysis in order to provide an initial value for sections reinforcements.
The pushover analysis is a list of sequential actions. First, linear finite element analysis is run. One of the results used further on is the reinforcements of elements, used in defining the characteristic curve of plastic hinges. Next, the lateral load pattern is obtained and it applies to the structure. Then, in an iterative process, these loads are gradually increased. At every increment the internal forces at the location of potential plastic hinges, the base shear and the control point displacement are monitored. When the internal forces at a potential plastic hinge reach a yielding level, the plastic hinge is activated according to its characteristic curve previously defined. The stiffness matrix is adjusted accordingly, and the finite element calculation is continued. The incrementing lateral load is continued, and the matrix update process is repeated for all activated plastic hinges. Calculations are continued until either: the target displacement is reached; the structure becomes a mechanism; analysis does not converge anymore, or a maximum number of steps is reached.
At every step of incrementation the displacement of a control point on the structure is recorded with its corresponding base shear value. This data is then plotted on a curve, called the pushover curve. It is initially linear at relative low values of base shear (the structure is still elastic), then becomes non-linear for higher values of base shear due to plastic deformations occurring in the structure.
Pushover analysis on Advance Design Main features of the Pushover analysis in Advance Design 2021:
Extended definition of Plastic Hinges – Plastic hinges (linear elastic-perfect plastic) can be easily defined on linear elements; – Available on the axial (Tx) and flexural (Ry and Rz) degrees of freedom; – Can be defined automatically and fully customizable with respect to FEMA 356 and EC8-3; – Automatic definition can be done for steel I – cross sections (IPE, HEA, W, …) and concrete Square, Rectangular and T-shaped cross sections; – For concrete element plastic hinges can be computed using the real reinforcement (for Eurocode) or the theoretical reinforcement (North America codes); – Can be user defined – allows for applying plastic hinges on any type of cross section, for both steel and concrete linear elements. 2.Automatic generation of pushover loads with extensive parameterization capabilities – Pushover point & surface loads are defined at each floor; – Possibility for selecting the load distribution on the height of the structure within several types: Concentrated, Uniform distributed, Triangular distributed, Parabolic distributed, User defined (fully customizable); – Possibility for computing the maximum total lateral load by using the Percentage of the total gravity loads, by Seismic base shear force on X, and by Seismic base shear force on Y; – Up to 8 load cases can be defined: 2 distributions (as required by FEMA356 and EC8-3) and 4 directions (+/-X, +/-Y). 3. Wide range of available Results – FEM results and reports; – The pushover force-displacement curve; – Reports tables with status of hinges and the overstrength ratio (αu/α1); – Graphical results showing the status of hinges at each load step.
Let’s take a closer look at the next steps of the process. We start from the stage when a model is already prepared for linear statics calculations (including defined geometry, levels, loads, etc.).
Definition of plastic hinges In order to perform the pushover analysis, the user first needs to define the plastic hinges at locations where they are expected to occur (ends of beams), or at locations where their arise needs to be monitored (ends of columns). The plastic hinges can be defined on individual linear elements from the properties panel.
The user is able to select the degrees of freedom for which this hinge is applicable, separate for each extremity. The ID name of a plastic hinge is generated automatically, and it consists of prefix PLH-L (plastic hinge on linear element), ID of the element, the extremity (1 or 2) and the type of the element (B – for beams, C for columns). The definition of parameters of the plastic hinge can be done by using a dialog opened by a button on the Definition property.
In a case when the user decides that parameters should be calculated automatically, then he can select the code (EC 8-3 or FEMA 356) and plastic hinge type. The available types (steel or concrete beams and columns) depend on the selected code and degree of freedom. Note that some of the parameters are computed only during the next stage, during the pushover analysis. In a case when the user decides to define the properties of the plastic hinge manually, the Definition should be set to User defined. Then, each property can be unlocked and edited individually. When plastic hinges are applied to elements, they can be presented graphically (on the descriptive model) by using a grey symbol.
Definition of Pushover loads The next stage is the creation of pushover load cases and generation of pushover loads. For this, a new Pushover load case family type can be defined from the Create load case family. On its property list we can set the basic data for load generation such as: the distribution type, the point of application and the directions of the loads.
Looking on the distribution types – there are several distribution types of the pushover forces on the height of the structure available:
Using the right click menu on the Pushover load case family we can then automatically generate the pushover load cases and loads. On the property list of each generated pushover load case we can set details related to the maximum total lateral load. The maximum total lateral load is the cumulated sum of the lateral loads applied on the last step of the pushover analysis. This load can be defined either as the imposed value or as a percentage of the load applied on the structure, prior to the pushover. For each load case, a different definition of the maximum lateral load can be selected.
The Master node is used for tracking the displacement of the structure and generating the pushover load-displacement curve. This node can be either defined (as an ID of a mesh node), or the Max displacement option can be used. In this case, the maximum displacement, on the direction of the pushover load case, at each step of the analysis will be used for plotting the pushover curve. Similar to the classical NL analysis, additional calculation conditions can be set for the PushOver Analysis as well. The analysis could either run until the total lateral load is applied (last step) or it could be stopped earlier due to the instability of the non-linear calculations – usually when a mechanism state is reached. In this case the results will be available for the calculated steps.
Calculations The pushover analysis is a list of sequential actions, activated by a dedicated Pushover checkbox control in Calculation sequence dialog.
During the process several steps are performed automatically, including:
· a standard linear static and seismic calculation; · the design of steel linear elements / design of concrete linear elements (including the real reinforcement);and finally, the main non-linear static calculation for the pushover load cases with incrementing lateral loads and an appropriate activation of plastic hinges.
Results After successful completion of pushover calculations, a set of different types of results is available. FEM results As with normal static calculations, FEM results such as displacements and internal forces are available. The results can be checked as for the non-linear calculations for each of the subsequent calculation steps.
The pushover force-displacement curve Using a new Pushover results curve command, available on the Results ribbon, a pushover capacity curve can be generated. It displays a relationship diagram of the displacement of the node with respect to the total applied lateral load.
Reports tables For the results from the pushover analysis a set of new dedicated report tables is available, including:
Flexural plastic hinges status by load step
Axial plastic hinges status by load step
The overstrength ratio (αu/α1)
Graphical results showing the status of hinges at each load step A new Pushover Results entry is available on the FEM results selection that allows selecting the Hinge status result for linear elements. When activated, it shows the status of defined plastic hinges for selected step of the selected pushover case. The status is displayed by using colors.
Precise and intuitive steelwork functions are the result of over 25 years of experience in structural analysis. When it comes to modeling, analyzing and optimizing steel structures, Advance Design is a high-end solution that integrates all these processes within the same modern and easy-to-use interface.
The Steel Design Expert performs an advanced analysis and optimization of steel elements according to the selected standards. The available steelwork standards are CM66 (France), NTC 2008 (Italy), ANSI/AISC 360-10 (USA), CAN/CSA S16-14 (Canada) and Eurocodes 3 with several national appendixes:
Complete libraries of materials and cross sections
Advance Design provides complete libraries of materials (e. g., EN 10025-2, EN 10210-1, EN 10219-1) according to chapter 3 of EN 1993-1-1 and the possibility to define materials with custom properties. For cross sections, libraries such as European Profiles, Otua, UK Steel Sections and Autodesk Advance Steel Profiles are available. Also, you have the option to define libraries with customized cross-sections and even compound cross sections.
For advanced editing, visualization and calculation of geometrical characteristics of any type of cross section, Advance Design provides a specialized module: Cross Sections. This module can base the calculation (including torsionnal inertias and shear reduced sections) either on analytical formulas or on finite element analysis depending on the complexity of the cross section.
A large number of CAD functions are available for the easy modeling of steel structures. In addition, it is possible to automatically create trusses, portal frames and vaults which are available in Advance Design libraries. Using the corresponding structure generator, you can define the origin and the dimensions of the structure, the material and cross section of the elements, etc.
Since the version 2017, Advance Design includes the Steel Structure Designer. The Steel Structure Designer incorporates an extensive range of building definitions and tools enabling users to configure complete structures in seconds, from standard building shapes used in industry (platforms, steel halls), to more complex models, such as office buildings or structures with curved roofs, in seconds.
Complete customization of steel elements properties
The properties list for steel elements includes all the required parameters for deflection, buckling and lateral-torsional buckling verification. Castellated beams can be defined and designed with the ACB+ module (Arcelor Cellular Beams).
Detailed calculation assumptions
The calculation assumptions referring to the steel elements attributes can be defined for each element or selection of elements, using the corresponding element(s) properties list. For a fast definition of the steel elements properties, you can define design templates that can be applied on a selection of elements. Several design templates can be used in the same model. The design templates can be saved as XML files and imported in different projects.
The calculation assumptions referring to the calculation type, the steel optimization, the buckling parameters, the calculation sequences, etc. can be globally defined through a single operation, for all steel elements of the model:
The design assumptions can be modified at any time, in the modeling step and in the analysis step (when modifying the assumptions during the analysis step, it is necessary to rerun the steel calculation).
Accurate steel verification
The steel expert performs the steel verification, including the automatic buckling length computation and the automatic classification of cross sections according to Eurocodes 3. It provides access to results concerning the deflections verification, the cross section resistance, the element stability (buckling and lateral-torsional buckling) and the optimization of the steel shapes.
The command line informs about each step of the process. If errors are found during the calculation, the verification messages are displayed on the command line along with the IDs of the elements to which the messages refer. When the calculation process is completed, you have access to advanced result verification and a multitude of tools for customizing the display of the graphic results in the most suitable way.
Reliable fire verification
Advance Design can perform the fire verification of steel elements according to §4.2 (simplified method) of EN 1993-1-2 as fire resistance (§4.2.3) and critical temperature (§4.2.4). The software compares efforts given by frequent combinations with the maximum effort the element can handle at a given temperature. The definition of the fire verification conditions is a fast and easy process. You only have to:
Specify the fire exposure period:
Select the number of faces exposed to fire:
When the calculation is completed, the work ratios given by the fire verification are displayed on a specific tab of the shape sheet.
Maximize the efficiency of the materials consumption
The optimization process offers solutions for an efficient management of the materials consumption. You have full control of the optimization conditions: you can define the optimization mode, the suggestions process, the iteration process, etc.
The Stored shapes command allows you to configure the list of available shapes from which the steel expert may choose the optimal ones.
The steel expert compares the work ratio of the steel elements and suggests (if necessary) more adequate cross sections, that would correspond to the defined conditions.
For better visualization, the elements with a higher / lower work ratio than specified are displayed in red.
Advanced calculation reports
The shape sheets command allows you to view all the available results for a selected steel element: cross section properties, deflections, strength, stability, fire resistance and cross section class according to Eurocodes 3 in one dialog box.
You can generate a report with these results starting from the element’s shape sheet. This result is complete with all verifications and also mentions the corresponding article in the Norm.
The steel verification report offers a complete diagnosis of the model in different outputs: tables, texts, graphical post-processing. The report can be customized to suit your requirements.
Advanced calculation reports
Once the report content has been defined, there is no need to recreate the calculation report when the model undergoes any modification. The report content, including post-processing views, automatically updates at each calculation iteration (if specified) while preserving all the settings previously made:
The release 2021 of Advance Design features a new concept called “super-element”. The super element is a compound object which consists in a set of individual linear elements grouped for a design purpose, for example to check the limit deflection of the rafters beams on a steel frame or the maximal deflection on a continuous column across several levels.
The definition of a super element can be done in many ways, including by using the Create command from the right-click menu or from the ribbon, as well as using the List property, available on the property list of linear elements:
When creating the super element, Advance Design will check several conditions such as materials, cross-section, orientation. Each newly created super element has its own unique ID number. It can be used, among other things, for selection or for displaying on a model view, thanks to the new type of annotation for linear elements and the possibility to display colours per super element:
The super element concept is used for the standard check of steel elements: therefore, several new options are available on design parameters of steel elements. As soon as the user enables the “Super element” verification option is the property list, the corresponding deflection group of properties is available for editing, properties which applies to the entire super element:
The results of the deflection verification can be checked separately for the element and the super element either graphically, using the postprocessing diagrams for deflections, or on the Deflection tab on the Shape sheet dialog:
In a similar way the list of available options for the calculation of the Lateral-torsional buckling length (on the Lateral-torsional buckling dialog) has been updated. Note, that the content on the list depends on whether the dialog is opened for a super element or an element that is not a part of any super element. When opened for a super element, the list contains only two items Auto calc and super element ratio.
You can have more details about this new feature on the technical what’s new document available on your Graitec Advantage account (advantage.graitec.com).
Advance Design BIM system is dedicated to structural engineers who require a comprehensive solution for simulating and optimizing all their projects. It includes a user-friendly structural modeler, automatic load and combination generators, a powerful FEM analysis engine (static, dynamic, time history, non linear, buckling, large displacement analysis, etc.), comprehensive wizards for designing concrete and steel members according to Eurocodes, efficient result post-processing, and automatic report generators.
Some of the features of Advance Design are a new design module for timber frames to Eurocode 5 (German, English, French, Romanian and Czech National Appendices), calculation of cracked inertia for linear and planar elements, implementation of the Baumann method for reinforcement plates to Eurocode 2, verification of stresses and crack openings as a function of the real reinforcement implemented in the element for Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1).
Main information regarding stresses and crack openings
Seismic design of structures is mainly focused on developing a favorable plastic mechanism to render the structure strength, ductility, and stability.
The behavior of a structure regarding the action of a major earthquake is anything but ductile, taking into account the oscillating nature of the seismic action and the fact that plastic hinges appear rather randomly. To achieve the requirements of ductility, structural elements, and thus the entire structural system must be able to dissipate the energy induced by the seismic action, without substantial reduction of resistance.
Both Romanian seismic design code P100-1/2006 and Romanian standard SR EN 1998-1, provide a method for prioritizing structural resilience (“capacity design method”) in order to better choose the necessary mechanism for dissipation ofenergy. Determination of the design efforts and the efforts for elements will be in accordance to the rules of this method.
Flat slabs are more and more used nowadays, given their structural, architectural and MEP benefits. Of course, this comes with a list of design particularities – negligible in typical framing structures (such as punching shear) – that the structural engineer must address in order to achieve safeness and performance.
Some of the main benefits of using flat-slabs:
Reduced manual labour for concrete formwork
Reduced quantities of formwork
Smooth interior surface that serves architects and also mechanical engineers
Advance Design offers the possibility to design any steel member with any steel section considering 2nd order effects with imperfections and torsional warping. This kind of verification of verification cannot be done using analytical formulas coming from Eurocodes.
This is why Advance Design includes a powerful method based on 7 dofs finite elements running a modal analysis in order to be able to define automatically all possible Eigen shapes important for this kind of check.
Nick Johns, Head of Digital Production for Graitec UK, gave an interview to the prestigious online magazine PBC Today, in which he explained in detail the issues regarding the adoption of BIM by manufacturers in the construction industry, suggesting the benefits it brings BIM adoption: profitability, efficiency, expanding the market share and win new tenders.
GRAITECBIM Designers Slab Module provides automatic reinforcement design solutions according to international codes and norms for slabs. The module will be introduced to the public for the first time starting with the official release of the 2020 Graitec Advance Suite.
The reinforcement cages for slabs can be designed using individual bars or fabrics that can be selected from large international libraries. They can also be manually customized based on users’ preferences. The module allows designing reinforcement cages made from a mix of fabrics and bars.
BIM Designers Wall Module provides automatic reinforcement design and performs the necessary verifications according to international codes for bearing and shear walls. The module will be introduced to the public starting with the official release of 2020 Graitec Advance Suite.
The software also automatically generates drawings, diagrams, and reports. Based on the generated reinforcement cage, the Wall Module generates, with the help of the ”Bill of Materials” command, the necessary quantity of materials as well as their total estimative cost. The prices of the materials are defined by the user per unity.